The King and Queen were taken prisoner. This group and Robespierre were responsible for the Reign of Terror. One of these supporters assassinated Marat in July Messages of support for the Assembly poured in from Paris and other French cities. The government formed under this new constitution was called the Directory.
Radical leaders came into prominence. He could not be made an official minister because he was a Protestant. They needed military support and turned to Napoleon Bonaparte, a French general who had become a hero during a military campaign in Italy in and The National Assembly began to decide how it would be under the new constitution.
While all of the orders shared a common desire for fiscal and judicial reform as well as a more representative form of government, the nobles in particular were loath to give up the privileges they enjoyed under the traditional system.
With the Legislative Assembly in place, the problems did not go away. The commoners appealed to the clergy, who asked for more time. What has it been until now in the political order.
It was the first one that did not include the king and gave every man in France a vote. The storming of the Bastille[ change change source ] A sans-coulotte, a radical revolutionary, carrying a tricolor flag.
Meanwhile, the masses of France also took action.
Many people with radical ideas began to form political clubs. In Junethe Convention arrested the leading Girondists. Executive power would lie in the hands of a five-member Directory Directoire appointed by parliament.
The Jacobins had taken power. Poor harvests lasting several years and an inadequate transportation system both contributed to making food more expensive. Over the next few years, this helped the Republican army push back the attacking Austrians, Prussians, British, and Spanish.
With the French Revolution began the institutionalization of secularized individualism in both social life and politics; individualism and rationality found expression in parliamentary government and written constitutionalism.
On July 14,a huge crowd of Parisians rushed to the Bastille. They wanted to arrest many Girondin members of the National Convention.
A popular insurgency culminated on July 14 when rioters stormed the Bastille fortress in an attempt to secure gunpowder and weapons; many consider this event, now commemorated in France as a national holiday, as the start of the French Revolution.
Many were so destitute that they couldn't even feed their families and resorted to theft or prostitution to stay alive. The clergy and nobles did not have to pay most taxes.
Many members, especially the nobles, wanted a senate or a second upper house. Perhaps most importantly, how much authority would the king, his public image further weakened after a failed attempt to flee the country in Juneretain.
The Third Estate demanded that the credentials of deputies should be verified by all deputies, rather than each estate verifying the credentials of its own members, but negotiations with the other estates failed to achieve this. When all groups have put their mini puzzles together, they need to put all of them together in one giant puzzle.
In North America this backlash caused the American Revolutionwhich began with the refusal to pay a tax imposed by the king of Great Britain. The States-General was made up of representatives of the three estates, and had last met in They proceeded to do so two days later, completing the process on 17 June.
They established the National Assembly and tried to pressure the aristocracy to spread their money evenly between the upper, middle and lower classes. In Julyafter the National Assembly was formed, the nobility and the king were angry with Jacques Neckerthe Director-General of Finances, and they fired him.
The revolution began with a government financial crisis but quickly became a movement of reform and violent change. About a third of these deputies were nobles, mostly with minor holdings.
They were among the most important people in French society but were not recognized as such because they belonged to the third estate. On June 17, with talks over procedure stalled, the Third Estate met alone and formally adopted the title of National Assembly; three days later, they met in a nearby indoor tennis court and took the so-called Tennis Court Oath serment du jeu de paumevowing not to disperse until constitutional reform had been achieved.
Obviously, the English and American revolutions of and prefigure these changes, but it was the more universalist French… Origins of the Revolution The French Revolution had general causes common to all the revolutions of the West at the end of the 18th century and particular causes that explain why it was by far the most violent and the most universally significant of these revolutions.
Finally the constitution was completed. This is where the Estates-General met in In Maythe Estates-General was called by the King in order to deal with the money problems of the country. French Revolution, also called Revolution ofthe revolutionary movement that shook France between and and reached its first climax there in Hence the conventional term “Revolution of ,” denoting the end of the ancien régime in France and serving also to distinguish that event from the later French revolutions of and Teachers also need to have knowledge of the French Revolution.
Student Prior Knowledge Students do not need any prior knowledge, though if they know how to use a GPS system, it would help their group. The French Revolution had general causes common to all the revolutions of the West at the end of the 18th century and particular causes that explain why it was by far the most violent and the most universally significant of these revolutions.
The French Revolution challenged political, social and cultural norms in European society. Politically, the governmental structure of the Revolution moved from an absolute monarchy to a constitutional monarchy to a republic and finally to an oligarchy.
The revolution ended when Napoleon Bonaparte, a French general, took over the government. At the beginning of the revolution, events seemed minor and proceeded in a logical fashion.
One of the reasons the revolution originated was the discontent among the lower and middle classes in France. Perhaps the best overview of the Revolution is William Doyle's "The French Revolution: A Very Short Introduction".
Doyle's book is a masterpiece of concision and exposition. It stands as a model of intellectual clarity.An introduction to the french revolution